The reduction of fat in a persons diet involves a low-fat diet. Your calorie consumption is reduced for the purpose of ssing weight. Diets of this type include NCEP Step I and II. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of 2-12 months' duration found that low-fat diets resulted in weight loss of 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) over eating as normal. Some low carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in fat and protein. They are very popular in the press but are not recommended by the American Heart Association. A review of over 100 studies did not find that low-carbohydrate diets cause weight loss, except when calorie intake was restricted. No adverse effects from low carbohydrate diets were detected.
Most low-calorie diets will usually produce a average deficit of 500-1,000 calories per day, and may result in a 0.5 kilogram (1.1 lb) weight loss per week. They include the DASH diet and Weight Watchers among others. The National Institutes of Health reviewed 34 randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of low-calorie diets. They found that these diets lowered total body mass by 8% over 3-12 months.Very low calorie diets provide 200-800 kcal/day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average weekly weight loss of 1.5-2.5 kilograms (3.3-5.5 lb). These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.
Loss of weight typically involves the loss of fat, water and muscle. Overweight people, or people suffering from obesity, typically aim to reduce the percentage of body fat. Additionally, as muscle tissue is denser than fat, fat loss results in increased loss of body volume compared with muscle loss. Reducing even 10% body fat can therefore have a dramatic effect on a person's body shape. To determine the proportion of weight loss that is due to decreased fat tissue, various methods of measuring body fat percentage have been developed.
Muscle loss can occur during weight loss but can be restricted by regularly lifting weights (or strength-oriented calisthenics or isometrics) and by maintaining sufficient protein intake. Those on low-carbohydrate diets, and those doing particularly strenuous exercise, may wish to increase their protein intake. The National Academy of Sciences states that the Dietary reference intake for protein is “0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight for adults.” Over extended periods of time excessive protein intake may cause liver and kidney problems and may be a risk factor for heart disease. There is no conclusive evidence that moderately high protein diets in healthy individuals are dangerous, it has only been shown that these diets are dangerous in individuals who already have kidney and liver problems.
The energy intake from food is limited by the efficiency of digestion and the efficiency of utilization. The efficiency of digestion is largely dependent on the type of food being eaten, while efficiency of utilization is affected by individual factors, including body weight and hormones. Also the effects of chewing, especially in elderly people, have been shown to affect the intake of micro-nutrients. However, there was no significant effect on the intake of macro-nutrients, such as sugars, fats, and proteins.
A bodies nutrients are provided from six separate classes: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, dietary minerals, and water. Carbohydrates are metabolized to provide energy. Proteins provide amino acids, which are required for cell construction, especially for the construction of muscle cells. Essential fatty acids are required for brain and cell membrane construction. Vitamins and trace minerals help maintain proper electrolyte balance and are required for many metabolic processes. Dietary fiber is another food component which influences health even though it is not actually absorbed into the body.
Many diet's that fail to meet minimum nutritional requirements can threaten general health (and physical fitness in particular). If a person is not well enough to be active, weight loss and good quality of life will be unlikely.Check out the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization because they publish guidelines for dietary intakes of all known essential nutrients. Sometimes people on a diet will ingest excessive amounts of vitamin and mineral supplements. While this is usually harmless, some nutrients are dangerous. Men (and women who don't menstruate) need to be wary of iron poisoning. Retinol (oil-soluble vitamin A) is toxic in large doses. As a general rule, most people can get the nutrition they need from foods. In any event, a multivitamin taken once a day will suffice for the majority of the population.
Weight-loss diets which manipulate the proportion of macronutrients (low-fat, low-carbohydrate, etc.) have not been found to be more effective than diets which maintain a typical mix of foods with smaller portions and perhaps some substitutions (e.g. low-fat milk, or less salad dressing). Extreme diets may, in some cases, lead to malnutrition. So please be very careful with these types if this is what you choose.
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